London: Luzac, Barnes, Jonathan. Aristotle: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, U, Edwin E.
Holdings: Introduction to Islamic theology and law
Calverley, James W. Leiden: Brill, Ess, Josef, Van.
The Flowering of Muslim Theology. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, Paris: J.
Encyclopedias & dictionaries
Vrin, Introduction to Islamic Theology and Law. Princeton, N. J: Princeton University Press, Griffel, Frank. Hourani, Albert. London: Oxford University Press, Khalifa, Nouha. London: Tauris Academic Studies, Landolt, Hermann, and Todd Lawson.
London: I. Tauris, Martin, Richard C, Mark R. Woodward, and Dwi S. Oxford, England: Oneworld Publications, Nagel, Tilman. Rahman, Fazlur. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, Thomas, David. Christian Doctrines in Islamic Theology. Tymieniecka, Anna-Teresa, and Nazif Muhtaroglu.
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Dordrecht: Springer, Watt, W M. Except in regard to the fundamental questions of the existence of God, Islamic revelation , and future reward and punishment, the juridical conditions for declaring someone an unbeliever or beyond the pale of Islam were so demanding as to make it almost impossible to make a valid declaration of this sort about a professing Muslim. In the course of events in Islamic history, representatives of certain theological movements, who happened to be jurists and who succeeded in converting rulers to their cause, made those rulers declare in favour of their movements and even encouraged them to persecute their opponents.
Thus there arose in some localities and periods a semblance of an official, or orthodox , doctrine. Together with these other disciplines , Islamic theology is concerned with ascertaining the facts and context of the Islamic revelation and with understanding its meaning and implications as to what Muslims should believe and do after the revelation had ceased and the Islamic community had to chart its own way.
It remained true to its original traditional and religious point of view, confined itself within the limits of the Islamic revelation, and assumed that these limits as it understood them were identical with the limits of truth. The pre-Islamic and non-Islamic legacy with which early Islamic theology came into contact included almost all the religious thought that had survived and was being defended or disputed in Egypt , Syria , Iran , and India.
At first, access to this legacy was primarily through conversations and disputations with such men, rather than through full and accurate translations of sacred texts or theological and philosophic writings, although some translations from Pahlavi a Middle Persian dialect , Syriac , and Greek must also have been available. The characteristic approach of early Islamic theology to non-Muslim literature was through oral disputations, the starting points of which were the statements presented or defended orally by the opponents.
Oral disputation continued to be used in theology for centuries, and most theological writings reproduce or imitate that form. From such oral and written disputations, writers on religions and sects collected much of their information about non-Muslim sects. Much of Hellenistic post-3rd-century- bce Greek cultural , Iranian, and Indian religious thought was thus encountered in an informal and indirect manner. From the 9th century onward, theologians had access to an increasingly larger body of translated texts, but by then they had taken most of their basic positions.
By this time Islamic theology had coined a vast number of technical terms, and theologians e.
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